|Chapter 2||The Eternal Reality of the Soul's Immortality||Verse 38|
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:
The previous statement given by Arjuna in chapter one, verse 36 concerning his apprehension of sin coming upon him is now being nullifed by the Supreme Lord's instruction of non-attachment to the fruits of action. Regarding as equal pleasure and pain, loss and gain and also the cause of both these dualities which is victory or defeat. The attribute of equanimity is absolute freedom from elation and despondency. Giving up all notions of what is pleasurable, being equipoised by whatever comes of its own accord and by fighting the battle as a matter of ksatriya duty Arjuna will not incur any sin.
Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Bhagavad-Gita: chapter 2, verse 39
The use of the word sankhya determines the proper understanding. Sankhyam is of the eternal soul category which is apprehensible through the understanding by the rational faculty of the mind. The immortal soul as an eternal principle must be understood. That understanding by which to comprehend it has already been given to Arjuna so he would know it in the previous verses in this chapter being verse 12 never at all was that I and verse 30 therefore thou has no cause to grieve for any creature. As for the use of the word yoga meaning karma yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness through actions without desiring fruitive results. It is to be understood that the spiritual intelligence acquired by following this yoga of actions when based on sankhyam or knowledge of the soul is the path which leads to salvation. This precise understanding is what is declared further in this chapter in verse 49; but in the next verse learn just what spiritual knowledge is to be gained by this karma yoga. Imbibing the wisdom from it, cut asunder the bonds of karmic reactions from all actions. The virtue of actions performed in this way will subsequently be given in verse 40.
Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:
Now Lord Krishna refutes Arjuna previous worry about accruing sin by killing his heinous enemies with the words sukha and dukha meaning happiness and unhappiness. Although the pleasure of happiness and the pain of unhappiness in fighting this righteous war are inevitable; still this must be considered as pertaining to the body only and not to the soul which is distinctly different from the physical body. Profit and gain, victory and defeat even without considering the goal of heaven Arjuna should prepare to fight for the sole purpose of exclusively fulfilling his duty. Thus fixed in this determination with proper understanding if he slays anyone he will not incur sin. To the contrary Arjuna will be free from the sin incurred by refraining from the battle and not executing his duty.