Chapter 3The Eternal Duties of a Human BeingsVerse 9

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Anvaya

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Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Visnuswami

Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Everyone in the world is locked and bound to the material existence by actions. The renunciates state that: since all actions lead to bondage they should not be performed. But refuting this Lord Krishna states yagna-artaht that sacrifices done for the Supreme Lord without expectation of reward are exempt from bondage. This is confirmed in the Tattitrya Samhita I.VII.XXXXIV that sacrifice is non-different from the Supreme Lord. But for all other actions not sanctioned by worship to Him and not offered to Him the result is bondage. Therefore actions should be performed in this way without desires with firm faith and dedication to the Supreme Lord.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya

Madhvacarya's Commentary

Living entities are bound to the material existence by their actions. This bondage by actions is spoken of very clearly in the Vedic scriptures. Here Lord Krishna states yagna-arthat meaning actions that are performed as an offering for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord without desiring reward are the only actions which are free from bondage. This is the purport. Lord Krishna also states mukta-sangah meaning free from attachment which is the qualifying statement. Inappropriate are actions that crave desires due to attachment. Appropriate are actions that are free from desires and attachment. All actions should be performed as a sacrifice to the Supreme Lord and no sacrifice should ever be performed with an intention for reward. These statements and others are given in the Upanisads.

Now begins the summary.

The statements of living entities being bound to material nature by their actions refers to actions which are contrary to divinity and righteousness as delineated in Vedic scriptures. Jaya is a name given to the resplendent Supreme Lord and this name means glory. According to the Barkashruti in the word Jaya the Ya signifies yagna. Therefore yagna is the performance of the prescribed activities given in the Vedic scriptures for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja

Ramanuja's Commentary

Instead of working hard to acquire funds for self gratification endeavours which causes one to bound in the material existence. Activities performed as an offering to the Supreme Lord known as yagna or sacrifice should be performed which are not bound to the material nature. Lord Krishna uses the word sanga which means attachment this means that attachment will be there when the action is undertaken for self service but as an offering to the Supreme Lord one is free from such ulterior motivations. All activities when done as an offering to the Supreme Lord with anticipating any reward become consecrated through yagna or acts of worship done for the pleasure of atma-purusha, the Supreme Lord internally within the heart and externally pervading all existence. The Supreme Lord recognising such devotion will mitigate all the sins and the merits from such offered actions which bind one to receiving punishment or rewards since time immemorial and neutralising them direct one from inside, and following this path with very little difficulty one can achieve self-realisation. It is now shown that all persons of every segment of society without exception must nourish themselves by food offered as yagna consecrated worship exclusively and that sins are imbibed by all those who do not do so.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Nimbaditya

Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

As is revealed in many passages in the Vedic scriptures that: One who has realised the effulgent Supreme Lord becomes free from all bondage. The smrti scriptures also state that jivas, living entities are bound by actions and declare that all actions are ropes of bondage. So Arjuna might postulate why he is being motivated to execute actions. Anticipating this Lord Krishna states in this verse: yagna-arthat meaning acts of sacrifice. Everyone is bound by their actions but the actions that are prescribed in the Vedic scriptures as an offerring to the Supreme Lord cause no bondage. Actions performed according to the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures is declared as sacrifice and verily is non-different from the Supreme Lord Himself. So with firm faith and proper procedure one should do their duty for the sake of the Supreme and make it an offerring without attachment as propitiation to the Supreme Lord.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 3, verse 9 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 9


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