Chapter 11The Vision of the Universal FormVerse 19


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Now Lord Krishna's visvarupa or divine universal form is precisely perceived as non-different from Him being without beginning or birth, of infinite potency and power, having the sun and the moon for eyes and with blazing fires erupting from His unlimited mouths, illuminating as well as scorching the creation with its fiery radiance.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

In reference to Lord Krishna's visvarupa or divine universal form having His eyes being the sun and moon. It should be understood as both the sun and the moon which originate from Him. Then this is in accordance with the Rig Veda that states: Since all the 330 million demigods have been produced from just a portion of the Supreme Lord they are glorified as His individual parts. Also other Vedic scriptures have stated: From the mind the moon was created and from the eyes the sun was created. In consideration of the infinite number of forms within it that can be seen it is appropriate to say that all these infinite forms have their refuge in the visvarupa.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna's visvarupa or divine universal form is infinite being devoid of beginning, middle or end. The word ananta means unlimited and viryam means powerful so the visvarupa is unlimitedly powerful without any restrictions. Other qualities are also implied by ananta such as cognizance, dominion, might, strength, etc. The words ananta-bahum meaning unlimited arms also infers unlimited hands, chests, legs, feet, etc as well. Sasi-surya-netram means eyes like the sun and moon. The moon's rays denote the cool gentle beaming look that gladdens as it shines upon the Supreme Lords servitors the demigods and His votaries the devotees with compasssion. The sun's glowing rays denotes the hot, burning eye that scorches the inimical hosts of asuras or demons and raksasas or devils who are devoid of righteousness to others. Dipta-hutasa-vaktram meaning with fire emitting from their mouths denotes the fire of universal destruction contained within the bosom of time raged therein. Sva-tejasi means dazzling splendour and unprecedented radiance which illuminated everything around it. This glorious life giving energy flows unrestrictedly throughout all the universes.

Arjuna is explaining that he has seen the reality of the visvarupa according to the manner in which Lord Krishna deigned to teach him by exhibiting the visvarupa in before him and practically demonstrating that He is the complete creator, the complete sustainer, the total refuge of all and the absloute destroyer as well as being the receptacle for all divine qualities and transcendental attributes such as omniscience, omnipotence and omni-presence. The question may arise as to how is it possible for unlimited bodily parts to be functioning all in one body. The answer to this would be that one can imagine a single bodily midsection of vast proportions with unlimited chests, arms, hands necks and heads branching upwards from it in every direction and with every head having two eyes, two ears, a nose and a mouth. Also branching downwards in every direction it is possible to imagine unlimited legs and feet as well. So this conception is clearly not an impossibility and seeing it along with choice demigods and exalted liberated beings they were all inspired with awe and reverence.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna's visvarupa or divine universal form is being described as anadi-madhya-antam meaning without beginning, middle or end with ananta- viryam or unlimitedly powerful of infinite prowess endowed with unlimited arms, heads, faces and eyes which are equated to the sun and moon. The cool rays of the moon soothe and nourish the devotees who are distraught in separation from the Supreme Lord. The scorching heat of the glowing sun punishes and chastises the demons like a blazing inferno which is comparable to the fire at the time of universal destruction.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 11, verse 19 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 19

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