Chapter 18Final Revelations of the Ultimate TruthVerse 44


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

The duties of both the vaisyas or mercantile agricultural class and the sudras or servant class is explained by Lord Krishna. Cow raising and protecting and agricultural cultivation as well engaging in buying and selling of products and goods are duties of vaisyas born of the nature of raja guna or mode of passion mixed with tama guna or mode of ignorance. The duties of sudras is loyal service to the other three classes and receiving sustenance for their livelihood from them and is born of the nature of tama guna.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:

There is no commentary for this verse.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The natural duties allocated to the vaisyas or agricultural, mercantile class are: 1) krishi or farming. 2) go-raksa or cow raising and cow protecting 3) vanijyam or acts of commerce and trade endorsed by the Vedic scriptures. The natural duties of sudras or worker class are amenable service to the upper 3 classes.

Thus by defining the duties of the four classes in Vedic culture the necessary performance of prescribed Vedic activities and the appropriate participation of each of the four classes is implied. For example in yagna or ritualistic performance of propitiation and worship the Brahmins will perform the ceremony, the ksatriya will donate wealth, the vaisyas will supply the ingredients such as ghee or clarified butter and cow products, the sudras will serve the ksatriyas and vaisyas.

The Brahmins being naturally endowed with sattva guna the mode of goodness are allotted with samah or self control of the mind which bestows the purity required to perform Vedic rituals and ceremonies. Although qualified for initiation this was not allocated to ksatriya and vaisyas due to they having a preponderance of raja guna mode of passion and tama guna mode of ignorance which is not compatible with samah.

The Brahmins exemplify by example the teachings of the Vedic scriptures instructing others the proper way to live a human existence according to the status of life they are in. The ksatriyas duty is to righteously govern and protect the citizens of the country. The vaisyas duty is cow protection and cultivating food for the population. The sudras duty is to do all the menial services for a fair compensation, necessary for the upper three classes to discharge their duties expediently and efficiently.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Now Lord Krishna reiterates the duties of the vaisyas the farmer mercantile class. Cow raising and cow protecting, tilling the land for crops, trading and selling for business are the duities of vaisyas. Industrious service to the other three classes for fair recompense is the duty of sudras the worker class.

The Manu Samhita, chapter one,verses 88-91 confirm: Study of the Vedic scriptures, teaching of the Vedic scriptures, performing Vedic rituals, officiating as priests for ksatriyas and vaisyas initiated in Vedic culture, giving gifts and accepting donations are the duties of Brahmins. Protection of the citizenry, supporting and organising Vedic rituals, study of the Vedic scriptures, righteousness in ruling and giving donations to the Brahmin are the duties of ksatriyas. Protecting and raising of cows, study of the Vedas, agriculture, gift making, buying and trading are duties of vaisyas. Only one service was ordained for sudras the worker class and that was to ungrudgingly serve the three upper social orders.

The qualities of controlling the mind and senses, physical restraint of the body, etc. are commonly prescribed for all aspirants of moksa or liberation, they are naturally present in Brahmins due to being inherently predominated by sattva guna. The Vedic scriptures cite examples that others due to samskaras or previous impressions may also be situated in sattva guna as well if possessing truthfulness, forgiveness, non-violence, humility, etc. and the various qualities of sattva guna. This is apparent.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 18, verse 44 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 44

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