Chapter 18Final Revelations of the Ultimate TruthVerse 49


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Anticipating that the question may arise of how it is practically possible to accept only the positive and reject the negative, Lord Krishna responds by stating that one whose mentality is unfettered to anything mundane and material, devoid of attachment. Whose mind has conquered the false lure of desires and attraction to the objects of the senses. Who is bereft of egotism and is renounced and situated fully in sattva guna the mode of goodness; such a one achieves no reaction to actions, purity of mind and hence absence of activities. Although such a one may perform actions in actuality it is non-action because there is no conception as the doer. Chapter five verse 8 has already stated: That one who knows the absolute truth understands that they factually are not the doer and verse 13 states: The self controlled being who renounces all actions in their mind remains tranquil and serene and is considered to be topmost.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Perfection in renunciation entails relinquishing all desires for rewards thereof which is perfect equanimity. Perfection in renunciation of actions is abandoning all actions not connected to the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Lord Krishna explains that when buddhi or spiritual intelligence is unfettered meaning unattached to desires and rewards and the mind is controlled and senses conquered, with no conceptions of doership, established in renunciation even while performing prescribed Vedic activities one attains the supreme serene state of bhakti or exclusive loving devotion unto the Supreme Lord by dhyana or meditation in communion with Him internally as well as propitiation to Him with one's physical body externally such as japa or chanting His divine, holy names in ecstasy and promulgating His glories everywhere one goes throughout creation. By the wonderfulness of bhakti the mind and senses are already controlled and conquered quite easily and have surpassed the limits of jnana yoga or facilitating communion with the Supreme Lord by knowledge.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Perfection in the form of absolute knowledge is performing propitiation unto the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as ordained in Vedic scriptures in accordance to ones's own natural propensity. Now He presents the resultant rewards with the words: One whose mind is unfettered and free from attachment to anything, whose senses are totally subdued and completely under control, whose desires and cravings have all evaporated and cease to exist; such a one can reach the Supreme state of perfection. This Supreme state is the highest devotion and is flowing and constant like the purifying flow of the celestial river Ganges, in the form of constant meditation and continuous remembrance of the divine form, divine qualities, divine sweetness and divine pastimes of the effulgent Supreme Lord.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 18, verse 49 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 49

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