Chapter 15Realization of the Ultimate TruthVerse 17


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Here Lord Krishna shows the reason why the two types of beings persihable and impesihable were described in the previous verse for transcendental to both is the Supreme Lord, Himself. In the Vedic scriptures He is described as Parama the supreme and as Atma the eternal soul. Combined they become Paramatma the Supreme Soul which is different from the temporary impersihable as well as distinct from the immortal individual atma which is infintesimal, eternal consciousness. The Supreme Lord Krishna expands as the three Purusa Avataras of Vishnu who are Karanadaksayi Vishnu laying upon the unlimited casual ocean in yoga nidra or internal meditation, creating trillions upon trillions of universes which emmante unlimitedly from His pores during one exhalation.. They are ruled by His expansion of Garbodayaksayi Vishnu who served by Laksmi-devi, rules each universe and expands as all the avataras or incarnations throughout creation who manifest in various universes according to time, circumstances and schedule. From Garbodayaksayi Vishnu is expanded Ksisrodaksayi Vishnu who enters into the etheric heart of every jiva or embodied being in all of existence as Paramatma; maintaining and sustaining each and every jiva throughout all creation as one undivided reality.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

Now Lord Krishna expounds upon the supreme soul which is transcendent to both ksarah or fallible and the aksarah or infallible respectively as the conditioned and the liberated. This supreme soul is designated as paramatma in all the Vedic scriptures. The very epithet of parama meaning exaltedly supreme reveals that paramatma is distinctly unique and different from even the atma or immortal soul. All the atmas collectively in all of creation comprise the spiritual form of paramatma which penetrates all creation sustaining and maintaining it. The word loka means world and because it is written as lokyate it refers to the three classifications of worlds. One of them is achetana the inanimate worlds. Two is buddha- chetana or the animate worlds mixed with the inanimate worlds. Three is the unlimited and eternally liberated spiritual worlds. It is these three categories of worlds and all the jivas or embodied beings upon them that the Supreme Lord Krishna pervades and permeates, maintains and sustains by the fact that all the worlds are originally generated by Him. As the soveriegn creator of all creation this makes Him distinctly different from everything else yet at the same time a part of it. Because He alone is infinite it can be comprehended that only He can be distinctly different from the finite consisting of the inanimate, the animate, the jivas in bondage and those who have achieved liberation.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Lord Krishna refers again to the Supreme Lord whom is the ultimate goal to attain and the most worthy and whose divine opulence is expressed as the sun and the moon. He explains that the Supreme Lord is transcendental and different from both ksarah or perishable and aksarah or imperishable. The Supreme Lord is indestructible, eternal and infallible. He is the highest reality, the ultimate controller of prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence as well as the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence. Having integrated Himself as paramatma the Supreme soul within the etheric heart of each and every jiva or embodied being; the Supreme Lord maintains and sustains them along with all of creation.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 15, verse 17 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 17

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