Chapter 15Realization of the Ultimate TruthVerse 20


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

The subject matter of this chapter has been concluded. In a very concise way the Supreme Lord Krishna has revealed this most secret and esoteric doctrine and expanded it in full within these 20 verses. Whosoever learns and practices this doctrine becomes truly emlightened and accomplished in all their duties and responsibilities. So it goes without saying that Arjuna who has been instructed by Lord Krishna and understands this doctrine will be victorious in the battle of Kuruksetra as all his duties and responsibilities can be considered accomplished. The resplendent Supreme Lord Krishna having cut asunder the mundane tree of materialistic existence at the root revealed the results by His unequivocal teachings of the ultimate truth.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

Brahma, Shiva, demi-gods such as Indra, Surya, Agni, Vayu and all other jivas or embodied beings are ksarah or perishable. Everything that arises from prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence is impermanent and subject to destruction. Everything that arises from the brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence is aksarah or imperishable and of an eternal nature. This includes all atma's or immortal souls. But the Supreme Lord Krishna along with all of His avatars or incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures are all transcendental and distinctly different to both the ksarah or aksarah. The word kuta-sthah spoken earlier in verse 16 means the eternal associates of the Supreme Lord such as Sri Laxsmi-devi, who is also of an eternal nature as the shakti or feminine potency of the Supreme Lord always in direct service of Lord Krishna who is known as Purusottama the Supreme Being.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna considering Arjuna to be of a divine nature and a worthy recepient revealed the revelation of His aspect of Purusottama the absolute Supreme Being which is the confidential secret of all secrets. One who knows this shall become perpetually spiritually enlightened; acquiring all the attributes and wisdom by which one aspiring to attain Lord Krishna will possess. Such a one will have accomplished all works and duties and the result of every activity needed to attain Lord Krishna by renunciation and penance will in fact be acquired.

This chapter which gives complete knowledge of the Supreme Lord Krishna's aspect of Purusottama that has been substantiated by the Vedic scriptures is alone sufficient to to accomplish what is stated in this verse. That this spiritual knowledge in itself is enough to manifest spiritual enlightenment and all that arises from it without having direct contact with the Supreme Being known as Purusottama as that is not a requirement for success.

Chapter 15 has clearly delineated an explicit explanation of the three fundamentals of all existence which are Isvara the Supreme Lord, cit or sentient consciousness and achit or insentient matter which combined delivers a complete comprehensive solution to the meaning and mystery of existence throughout creation. This is the ontological thesis of Sri Ramanuja's qualified monism philosophy of Visisthadvaita-veda which states that although all the energies of the Supreme Lord are one they each retain their individuality.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

Thus in this chapter the Supreme Lord Krishna summarised the import of the Vedas, the Puranas and all Vedic scriptures. Extolling this sacred topic which He expanded upon in a concise way as the confidential secret of all secrets in the revelation of His aspect of Purusottama the Supreme Being. Simultaneously He has also given a gloss in an abridged form of the essence of the complete Bhagavad-Gita. In conclusion he has declared that those who have embraced this knowledge will become spiritually enlightened and achieve their topmost well being. They have actually accomplished everything they needed to accomplish because after attaining the knowledge of Lord Krishna as the absolute Supreme Being there is nothing left needing to be accomplished. The vocative Bharata referring to Arjuna's illustrious heritage implies that he as His devotee will surely attain these things without fail and that not only he but anyone not inimical to Lord Krishna who embraces this knowledge can become spiritually enlightened and fully satisfied as well.

I take full refuge in the Supreme Lord Krishna, He who is the most worthy of knowing and the goal of the Vedas, who in Srimad Bhagavad-Gita became the spiritual master and taught the conclusions of the Vedic scriptures. Who is totally different and distinct from both ksarah the perishable and aksarah the imperishable being transcendental to them although both originate from Him. He is omnipotent, ominisicent and omni-present and whose divine opulences such as trillions of luminous suns are unlimited.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 15, verse 20 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 20

Copyright © Bhagavad-Gita Trust 1998-2015