Chapter 2The Eternal Reality of the Soul's ImmortalityVerse 54


Sanskrit Vocal





Commentaries of the Four Authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

as confirmed in the Garga Samhita Canto 10, Chapter 61, Verses 23, 24, 25, 26
Rudra Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Sridhara Swami's Commentary

Desiring to know the characteristics of one who is self-realised in transcendental consciousness referred to in the previous verse Arjuna asks: What is the definition of a person whose spiritual intelligence by nature resides in transcendence and is steady in wisdom? That by which something is described is definable and has characteristics. Due to possessing what characteristics is one called a person of steady wisdom and how does such a person of steady wisdom conduct themselves? This is the meaning which is meant to be conveyed here.

Brahma Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Madhvacarya's Commentary

One whose consciousness is firmly established in transcendence is sthita- prajna. Such consciousness can be perceived by such characteristics of speech known as bhasa. Arjuna raises this question to determine whether characteristics other than those mentioned previously are present here. Firmly established in spiritual intelligence is emphasized here. Arjuna refers to Lord Krishna here as Keshava. Ka refers to Brahma and Isa refers to Rudra and as he is the source of both of them he is called Keshava. Another example is also given in the Harivamsa in connection to Lord Krishna during Rudras travel to Mt. Kailas. It says Hiranyagarbha or Brahma of the golden womb is Ka and Sankara is Isa and you as ordained of creation are known as Keshava. Kim asit means how and for what purpose does one so situated recline? It is not that Arjuna is unaware of these characteristics. Earlier kings and emperors of the world and yogis and sages and even demi-gods would ask such questions even if they knew of the eternal principles of righteousness as well as esoteric subjects that are mystical and confidential. These esoteric subjects are not comprehensible by those lacking spiritual intelligence. So it says in the Puranas.

Now begins the summation.

What is the manner of speech and how does one speak and in what mood does one speak who situated with spiritual intelligence is in transcendent consciousness. One who possesses equanimity of consciousness is without contradictions in their consciousness.

Sri Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Ramanuja's Commentary

What is it that which defines the sthita-prajnah or the adept fixed with spiritual intelligence who is immersed in transcendent consciousness? What are the characteristics to be recognised by such a one so situated in this state of mind? How does he speak and how does he act? This will be answered next.

Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya:


Kesava Kasmiri's Commentary

When the mind becomes fixed remaining steadfast then equanimity will arise. One with spiritual knowledge in transcendent meditation realises the ultimate truth perceiving God within. Understanding this fully Arjuna desirous of knowing the characteristics of such a being such as the way they talk, walk, sit, etc. requests Lord Krishna to reveal to him what are the signs of one stable in transcendence. How was this state achieved? In the world how does such a one speak and act. How does such a one move about. Arjuna asks this question because these things must be different for one situated in nescience. To remove the doubt that qualities such as these by one of tranquil mind such as Brahma or extremely powerful such as Shiva, in addressing Lord Krishna the vocative Keahava is used by Arjuna. Why is this? The creator and controller of both Brahma and Shiva is Lord Krishna who imparts spiritual knowledge to them. Thus Lord Krishna must be accepted as the sole refuge of all of creation because He is omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent. This is substantiated in the Vedic scriptures. He who creates Brahma and sends the eternal Vedas to him, He the effulgent and illuminating light of the soul and the mind should be supplicated to in full surrender for those desiring liberation from the material existence. From the forehead of He who was mediating on His inner self, Shiva of the trident was produced. In the smrtis it is said that Ka is the name of Brahma and Shiva is Isa the controller of all the embodied souls in material bodies. Both Brahma and Shiva are manifested from Lord Krishna thus Arjuna has called Him by the name Keshava.

Thus ends commentaries of chapter 2, verse 54 of the Srimad Bhagavad-Gita.

Verse 54

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